Thursday, September 6, 2018

Aggressive Behavior in the Workplace Part 2

  • Aggression can be triggered by such things as:
    • Lack of self-confidence
    • Bad mood
    • Sudden loss of control
    • Feeling of being manipulated
    • Retaliation for a perceived or actual first strike
    • Reaction to negative situations
    • Poor self-image  
    • Sometimes aggression may be necessary in a particular situation but in a controlled manner
  • The responses elicited by aggression may be:
    • Avoidance in the future of the aggressor or the topic that triggered the aggressive outburst
    • Aggression as retaliation
    • Humor or sarcasm
  • Manipulation is also aggression and may not be obvious.
    • Manipulators "appear" to be winners.
    • Manipulation can lead to:
      • Lack of trust
      • Build-up of resentment
      • Short-term gain only
  • Dealing with Aggressors
    • Usually, neither of these tactics are effective:
      • Fight back and defend yourself
      • Act submissively and remove yourself from the situation
    • Useful techniques
      • Probe for information and get the real facts
      • Start fogging by bouncing back what they are saying
      • Play a broken record
      • Focus on the problem not the person
      • Be assertive
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Tuesday, September 4, 2018

Aggressive Behavior in the Workplace Part 1

The success of an organization is dependent upon the interactions of its employees.  This month we will discuss one destructive type of behavior in the workplace - aggression.  Aggressors usually aim to win the interaction and have the other party lose.  
  • Characteristics of aggressive behavior include:
    • Lack of sensitivity
    • Coercion
    • Fault-finding
    • Judgmental
    • Combative
  • Aggressive behavior is "me-centered"
  • Elements of aggressive behavior include:
    • Outbursts of strong or violent emotions
    • Excessive use if ‘I’ statements
    • Use of threats
    • Negative language
    • Confrontational
    • Personalized comments
    • Complete disregard of the thoughts and feelings of the other party
  • Body language associated with aggression includes:
    • Gritted / bared teeth
    • Clenched fists
    • Bulging eyes
    • Pointing / stabbing fingers
    • Movement into the others personal space
    • High color
    • Excessive combative gestures
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Thursday, August 9, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 5

  • Departmentalization by Business Function
    • Advantages
      • Ideally suited to a stable organizational environment
      • Requires less internal coordination
      • Facilitates the development of expertise
      • Not dependent on interpersonal and managerial skills
    • Disadvantages
      • Response time to issues can be slow
      • Bottlenecks occur due to sequential nature of the organizational decision making process
      • Innovation may suffer
      • Strong demand on senior managers to coordinate
      • Conflict emerges from prioritization issues
  • Departmentalization by Product
    • Advantages
      • Ideal for organizations experiencing fast change
      • Clearly Defined Roles & Responsibilities
      • Facilitates High Product Visibility
    • Disadvantages
      • Allocation of resources can become a political battle for priority
      • Coordination of activities can decline
      • Expertise may decline
  • Departmentalization - Matrix
    • Expertise can be realized across the organization to tackle organizational projects
    • Project Teams can be drawn from various Functional Units
    • Project Manager Appointed to Operate a Project
      • Solid lines indicate line of command
      • Dashed lines indicate shared authority between project manager and functional manager
    • Advantages
      • Allocates Expertise Across the Organization
      • Greater Flexibility in Tackling Organizational Issues
      • Realizes Top Management Expertise
      • Develops Employee Skills
    • Disadvantages
      • Encourages Power Struggles
      • Highly dependent on the interpersonal skills of staff
      • Project manager may assume to much authority
      • Project Manager may isolate other members
      • Costly to implement
    • Networks
      • Internal Network
      • Dynamic - Loosely Completed Network
      • Vertical Network
      • Virtual Network:   "The virtual organization is a temporary network of companies that come together quickly to exploit fast-changing opportunities"
      • Virtual
        • Technology
        • Opportunism
        • Trust
        • No Borders
        • Excellence
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 4

  • Models of Organizational Structure
    • Bureaucratic
      • Specialization
      • Division of Labor
      • Hierarchical Arrangements of Position
      • Impersonal Relationships & Rules
  • Vertical
    • Key Characteristics
      • Traditional Organizational Structure
      • Power is Centralized
      • Employees have less autonomy
      • Formal Policies and Procedures
      • Strict Reporting Lines
      • Job Description Based
  • Horizontal
    • Key Characteristics
      • Flatter Organizational Structure
      • Less Hierarchical
      • Power is located with owner manager
      • Employees have broader span of responsibility
      • Similarly skilled experts
    • Departmentalization
      • Business Function
      • Product
      • Matrix
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Friday, August 3, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 3

  • Force & Form Within Organizations
    • Organizational Force
      • Force of Direction
        • Integration emerges from unity of direction
      • Force of Efficiency
        • Balancing the ratio between costs and benefits
        • Low ratio of costs to benefits = higher force of efficiency
      • Force of Proficiency
        • Levels of competencies and knowledge
      • Force of Concentration
        • Opportunity to focus on tasks and markets
      • Force of Innovation
        • Search for new products and services
      • Co-operation & Competition
        • Cooperation - merging norms and beliefs
        • Competition - the removal of politics detrimental to the organization
  • Mintzberg’s Organizational Forms
    • Entrepreneurial Form
      • Authority located with a single individual
      • Highly centralized
      • Low formalization
      • Low standardization
    • Machine Form
      • High Complexity
      • High Formalization
      • Low Centralization
      • Rules & Regulation Based
      • Functional Departments
    • Professional Form
      • Expert Based
      • High Formalization
      • Low Centralization
    • Adhocracy Form
      • Low Standardization
      • Low Formalization
      • High employment of project teams
      • Low Hierarchy
    • Diversified Form
      • Product Dominated
      • Organized around products and divisions
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 2

  • The Organizational Chart
    • A representation detailing all individuals, positions, reporting relationships, and formal lines of communication within the organization
  • The Organizational Chart
    • An organizational chart illustrates
      • Division of Work
      • Managers & Subordinates
      • Type of Work
      • Business Functions
      • Levels of Management
  • Dimensions of Organizational Structure
    • Specialization
      • How Tasks and Roles are Allocated
    • Standardization
      • How an organization adopts procedures
    • Formalization
      • The degree to which rules and procedures are documented
    • Centralization
      • The degree to which authority and decision making are located at the top of the organization
    • Configuration
      • The shape of the organization’s role structure
    • Traditionalism
      • The way procedures are understood or  ‘the way we do things around here’
  • Four Underlying Dimensions
    • Structuring of Activities
      • The extent to which there are defined regulation of employee behavior
      • Processes supported
        • Specialization
        • Formalization
        • Standardization
    • Concentration of Authority
      • The extent by which authority is located centrally either at the top of the organization or at a headquarters
    • Line Control of the Workforce
      • The extent by which control of the work is under the control of line management rather than through other interpersonal and detached procedures
    • Supportive Component
      • The comparative size of the administrative and other personnel outside that of the core workflow personnel
 Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Monday, July 30, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 1

An organization is “a collection of interacting and interdependent individuals who work towards common goals and whose relationships are determined according to a certain structure”  (Duncan, 1981) 
  • Key Concepts
    • Division of Labor
      • How activities within the organization are allocated into different jobs or tasks performed by different individuals
      • Division of Labor - Advantages
        • Most Efficient Utilization of Labor
        • Increased Standardization
        • Uniformity of Output
        • Reduction in Training Costs
        • Heightened Expertise
      • Division of Labor - Disadvantages
        • Routine & Repetitive Tasks
        • Low Job Satisfaction
        • Low Motivation and Employee Satisfaction
    • Span of Control
      • The amount of individuals who report either directly or indirectly to a manager
      • Managers who have a small span of control are able to develop closer relationships with employees and greater control over daily operations
    • Optimal Span of Control
      • The coordination requirements within the unit
      • The type of information required by the unit
      • The similarity of tasks within the unit
      • The extent to which individuals require direct access to the supervisor
      • Differences in members’ need for autonomy
    • Configuration
      • The shape of the organization reflecting the division of labor and the coordination of tasks
    • Administrative Hierarchy
      • Reporting Relationships from the lowest level to the highest in the organization
      • An administrative hierarchy is inversely related to the Span of Control
        • Organizations with a large span of control have a small amount of managers in the hierarchy
        • Organizations with a small span of control have a large administrative hierarchy
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP