Thursday, August 9, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 5

  • Departmentalization by Business Function
    • Advantages
      • Ideally suited to a stable organizational environment
      • Requires less internal coordination
      • Facilitates the development of expertise
      • Not dependent on interpersonal and managerial skills
    • Disadvantages
      • Response time to issues can be slow
      • Bottlenecks occur due to sequential nature of the organizational decision making process
      • Innovation may suffer
      • Strong demand on senior managers to coordinate
      • Conflict emerges from prioritization issues
  • Departmentalization by Product
    • Advantages
      • Ideal for organizations experiencing fast change
      • Clearly Defined Roles & Responsibilities
      • Facilitates High Product Visibility
    • Disadvantages
      • Allocation of resources can become a political battle for priority
      • Coordination of activities can decline
      • Expertise may decline
  • Departmentalization - Matrix
    • Expertise can be realized across the organization to tackle organizational projects
    • Project Teams can be drawn from various Functional Units
    • Project Manager Appointed to Operate a Project
      • Solid lines indicate line of command
      • Dashed lines indicate shared authority between project manager and functional manager
    • Advantages
      • Allocates Expertise Across the Organization
      • Greater Flexibility in Tackling Organizational Issues
      • Realizes Top Management Expertise
      • Develops Employee Skills
    • Disadvantages
      • Encourages Power Struggles
      • Highly dependent on the interpersonal skills of staff
      • Project manager may assume to much authority
      • Project Manager may isolate other members
      • Costly to implement
    • Networks
      • Internal Network
      • Dynamic - Loosely Completed Network
      • Vertical Network
      • Virtual Network:   "The virtual organization is a temporary network of companies that come together quickly to exploit fast-changing opportunities"
      • Virtual
        • Technology
        • Opportunism
        • Trust
        • No Borders
        • Excellence
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Tuesday, August 7, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 4

  • Models of Organizational Structure
    • Bureaucratic
      • Specialization
      • Division of Labor
      • Hierarchical Arrangements of Position
      • Impersonal Relationships & Rules
  • Vertical
    • Key Characteristics
      • Traditional Organizational Structure
      • Power is Centralized
      • Employees have less autonomy
      • Formal Policies and Procedures
      • Strict Reporting Lines
      • Job Description Based
  • Horizontal
    • Key Characteristics
      • Flatter Organizational Structure
      • Less Hierarchical
      • Power is located with owner manager
      • Employees have broader span of responsibility
      • Similarly skilled experts
    • Departmentalization
      • Business Function
      • Product
      • Matrix
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Friday, August 3, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 3

  • Force & Form Within Organizations
    • Organizational Force
      • Force of Direction
        • Integration emerges from unity of direction
      • Force of Efficiency
        • Balancing the ratio between costs and benefits
        • Low ratio of costs to benefits = higher force of efficiency
      • Force of Proficiency
        • Levels of competencies and knowledge
      • Force of Concentration
        • Opportunity to focus on tasks and markets
      • Force of Innovation
        • Search for new products and services
      • Co-operation & Competition
        • Cooperation - merging norms and beliefs
        • Competition - the removal of politics detrimental to the organization
  • Mintzberg’s Organizational Forms
    • Entrepreneurial Form
      • Authority located with a single individual
      • Highly centralized
      • Low formalization
      • Low standardization
    • Machine Form
      • High Complexity
      • High Formalization
      • Low Centralization
      • Rules & Regulation Based
      • Functional Departments
    • Professional Form
      • Expert Based
      • High Formalization
      • Low Centralization
    • Adhocracy Form
      • Low Standardization
      • Low Formalization
      • High employment of project teams
      • Low Hierarchy
    • Diversified Form
      • Product Dominated
      • Organized around products and divisions
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Wednesday, August 1, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 2

  • The Organizational Chart
    • A representation detailing all individuals, positions, reporting relationships, and formal lines of communication within the organization
  • The Organizational Chart
    • An organizational chart illustrates
      • Division of Work
      • Managers & Subordinates
      • Type of Work
      • Business Functions
      • Levels of Management
  • Dimensions of Organizational Structure
    • Specialization
      • How Tasks and Roles are Allocated
    • Standardization
      • How an organization adopts procedures
    • Formalization
      • The degree to which rules and procedures are documented
    • Centralization
      • The degree to which authority and decision making are located at the top of the organization
    • Configuration
      • The shape of the organization’s role structure
    • Traditionalism
      • The way procedures are understood or  ‘the way we do things around here’
  • Four Underlying Dimensions
    • Structuring of Activities
      • The extent to which there are defined regulation of employee behavior
      • Processes supported
        • Specialization
        • Formalization
        • Standardization
    • Concentration of Authority
      • The extent by which authority is located centrally either at the top of the organization or at a headquarters
    • Line Control of the Workforce
      • The extent by which control of the work is under the control of line management rather than through other interpersonal and detached procedures
    • Supportive Component
      • The comparative size of the administrative and other personnel outside that of the core workflow personnel
 Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Monday, July 30, 2018

Organizational Structure Part 1

An organization is “a collection of interacting and interdependent individuals who work towards common goals and whose relationships are determined according to a certain structure”  (Duncan, 1981) 
  • Key Concepts
    • Division of Labor
      • How activities within the organization are allocated into different jobs or tasks performed by different individuals
      • Division of Labor - Advantages
        • Most Efficient Utilization of Labor
        • Increased Standardization
        • Uniformity of Output
        • Reduction in Training Costs
        • Heightened Expertise
      • Division of Labor - Disadvantages
        • Routine & Repetitive Tasks
        • Low Job Satisfaction
        • Low Motivation and Employee Satisfaction
    • Span of Control
      • The amount of individuals who report either directly or indirectly to a manager
      • Managers who have a small span of control are able to develop closer relationships with employees and greater control over daily operations
    • Optimal Span of Control
      • The coordination requirements within the unit
      • The type of information required by the unit
      • The similarity of tasks within the unit
      • The extent to which individuals require direct access to the supervisor
      • Differences in members’ need for autonomy
    • Configuration
      • The shape of the organization reflecting the division of labor and the coordination of tasks
    • Administrative Hierarchy
      • Reporting Relationships from the lowest level to the highest in the organization
      • An administrative hierarchy is inversely related to the Span of Control
        • Organizations with a large span of control have a small amount of managers in the hierarchy
        • Organizations with a small span of control have a large administrative hierarchy
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Friday, July 13, 2018

Employee Absenteeism Part 3

  • Lost Time
  • Frequency
  • Separation
  • Set in place a clear mechanism for managing absenteeism
  • Employee Handbook:  Familiarize employees with the rules and regulations of the organization
    • Signed agreement that all staff understand their responsibilities
    • State that regular and punctual attendance is expected of all employees.  An employee who reports to work late or is not at work as scheduled for any reason compromises the delivery of organizational objectives
  • Training & Coaching
    • Organizational Well-Being Training
    • Stress Management Programs
    • Interpersonal Skills Training
    • Leadership & Management Training
  • Counseling Services may be helpful depending on the circumstances
  • Corrective Action: Be very careful here as there may be medical issues and legal concerns
  • Where feasible, the manager may explore flexible working arrangements (eg, Job Reclassification, Working Hours, Working Remotely) to assist the employees attendance
  • Ensure that all staff feel that they are involved, engaged members of the organization
  • Be aware of the needs of your employees and of the pressures that they face
  • Ensure that your Attendance Management Program is fair and equitable to all employees
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP

Wednesday, July 11, 2018

Employee Absenteeism Part 2

  • Poor Working Conditions
  • Workplace Accidents
  • Ineffective Leadership & Management Structures
  • Work-Related Stress
  • Role Related
  • Task Related
  • Workload either too great or too little
  • Low Morale & Job Satisfaction
  • Boredom
  • Poor Physical Fitness
  • Poor Nutrition
  • Illness (Acute or Chronic)
  • Personal Problems
  • Financial
  • Emotional

  • Be Honest With Yourself & Your Staff
  • Absenteeism is not just a employee issue; it is an organizational issue and therefore is everyone’s responsibility
  • Ask The Right Questions
  • How many individuals were absent?
  • Is there a difference between absenteeism rates between
  • Job Categories
  • Shifts
  • New and Old Employees
  • Gender, Age, etc.  Be careful regarding protected categories!
  • How many of the absences can be supported by medical certificates?
  • How many of the absences are from groups working overtime?
  • On what days do absences occur most frequently?
  • What are the business costs (Productivity, Administrative, Financial)?
  • What areas need improvement?
  • What is preventing the organization from reaching its goals?
  • What plans need to be put in place?
Until next time...

Sheryl Tuchman, SPHR, SHRM-SCP